ACEDIM: Avaluació i Certificació de la Competència DIgital Docent en la formació inicial de Mestres: una proposta de model per al sistema universitari català.
2018 - 2020
Students, future citizens of the digital society, are already in primary education who need to acquire a series of competences, including Digital Competence (CD), which will be essential for correcting the efficiency of mobile technology devices (Jubany), 2015 ) so it presents a daily life and still very little integrated in the learning processes. During the last decade, several investigations focused on the definition of the CD were carried out.
We begin the approach to the Digital Teaching Competition (CDD) with the first document published by an official UNESCO body (2011) that defines some bases with reference to this competence, indicating that it was not enough for teachers to develop the competence of the Technology of the Information and Communication (TIC) to teach it to its students, but the digital age teacher should also have the ability to master digital tools to ensure that their students develop the skills needed to integrate in a digital context (from the personal, professional and social side) in which they will have to learn throughout their lives in a permanent way. Before and after, however, there are other reference publications regarding CDD.
If we compare the benchmarks of the different frames, we see that they are more focused on literacy processes than on the development of the CDD itself, while the models focus more on the processes of application of ICT in the educational context. The proposals of the last years go a step further and also incorporate the processes of professional digital development of the teacher.
As our research was carried out in the Catalan context, it is important that we take into account the backgrounds that constitute, in part, the basis of this definition of CDD. Before discussing the definition and development of the CDD, the CD for the citizenship had been worked on. This is defined in accreditation in information and communication technologies (ACTIC), in its three levels of development (ACTIC 1, 2 and 3). ACTIC is taken as a reference framework for instrumental digital competence from a more general perspective and is the basis for the development of CDD much more oriented to the specificity of the tasks and attributions of a teaching staff that has to To develop as a professional in spaces and educational settings that will have to face the challenges of the digital society.
This CDD, oriented to its pedagogical practice in the classroom, has been called the Digital Methodological Competition (CDM) (Generalitat de Catalunya, 2013, 2016) and it is from this that the 5 dimensions and 22 Descriptors specifying related indicators and 3 levels of development (beginner, middle and expert) from the achievement of these indicators (Generalitat de Catalunya, 2016).
Instruments and tests for the evaluation of CD and CDD. With the need to train teachers in CDD, the need to evaluate is associated. In addition to identifying the components of the CDD, it becomes necessary to know the different levels of development of the CDD and to have instruments, self-perception and evaluation that allow us to graduate in order to guide teachers about their competence situation and where to guide them to continue advancing (Lazarus and Gisbert, 2015). We believe it is essential to orient the evaluation processes towards more objective strategies than the subjectivity that is to measure an exercise only from the perspective of the self-perception of the actors (Simens et. Alt., 2015).
There are currently different instruments and tests for the evaluation and accreditation of the CD and the CDD. Its diversity has to do with two aspects: the general approach and the measurement and evaluation procedures. Of the instruments analyzed in the works of (Calvani et al., 2009; Esteve & Gisbert; 2013; Larraz, 2012; Esteve-Mon, 2015, Lazarus, 2015) we found of different types. Some driven by national governments or international institutions, others focus on specific basic skills and others of higher order. Some instruments have an educational approach and are designed to be integrated into the teaching-learning process while others are oriented from a general perspective, to certify and / or prove the digital competences of the citizens.
The analysis of the evaluation tools of the CD serves as the basis for the design of the evaluation tools of the CDD. In Europe, the first one that had an impact, with regard to the number of states that decided to adopt it (currently more than 150 countries and accessible in more than 30 languages), is the ECDL and the ICDL that They are designed as a system of accreditation of this competition for any citizen. The tests that it contains focus on basic concepts, in the management of files, the management of different office programs and access to the Internet.
|Xavier carrera||Universitat de Lleida|
|Jordi Chumillas||Universitat de Vic|
|Juan González||Universitat de Girona|
|Francesc Esteve||Universitat Jaume I|
|Vanessa Esteve||Universitat Rovira i Virgili|
|Anna Forés||Universitat de Barcelona|
|Joaquín Gairín||Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona|
|Mercè Gisbert (IP)||Universitat Rovira i Virgili|
|Virginia Larraz||Universitat d'Andorra|
|José Luis Lázaro||Universitat Rovira i Virgili|
|Marta Marimon||Universitat de Vic|
|Elena Ojando||Universitat Ramon Llull|
|Anna Pérez||Escola l’Arrabassada|
|Teresa Romeu||Universitat Oberta de Catalunya|
|Teresa Sancho||Universitat Oberta de Catalunya|
|Anna Sánchez-Caballé||Universitat Rovira i Virgili|
|Mònica Sanromà||Universitat Rovira i Virgili|
|Héctor Vinyas||Escola els Àngels|
|Mateu Vives||Escola Antoni Torroja i Miret|
|Georgina Rovira||Escola Parc del Saladar d’Alcarràs|
The general objective that we are considering in this project is the development and validation. At the level of the Catalan University System, of an instrument and evaluation strategy of the CDD that allows us to first determine whether the future teacher is a CD and, secondly, to determine the level of development of the CDD in Function of the 3 levels defined (Generalitat de Catalunya, 2016) stating that the education level of education should ensure, at least, the initial level of development of the competition. The specific objectives are:
1. Review and adapt from the perspective of the internal university the evaluation tool of the CDD developed in the ARMIF2015 project to design the system version of the CDD.
2. Make a pilot test of the application of the tool in all universities participating in the project using a representative sample of students.
3. Adapt and contextualize the strategy for the collection of evidence for the evaluation of CDD
4. Carry out a pilot test of the evidence collection process for evaluation in each University to be able to configure a type strategy.
5. To review, from the interuniversity perspective, the model and certification strategy of the CDD to adjust it to the needs and general characteristics of the system.
6. To conduct a pilot test of the CDD certification process in the last year of the degree of education in all universities participating in the project.
7. Define the recommendations, in a modest way, to incorporate, at the time of access to the professional career, the requirement to have the initial level of the CDD certified.
The methodology selected for this project, for its suitability and convenience, is "Educational Design Research" (EDR) or research based on Educational Design (Van den Akker et al., 2006). This is understood as a systematic process of analysis, design, development and evaluation of an intervention (a training program, a product or a process) as a solution to a complex educational problem (Plomp & Nieveen, 2009). It is necessary Overcome the practical deficit of research in educational technology, considering it more as a process than as a tool, and addressing its complexity from a systematic and collaborative perspective, generating values that guide its use by to professionals (Amiel & Reeves, 2008). Consider EDR as a mixed and dynamic methodology (see figure 2), in which there are decisions already taken and others that are generated throughout the process. This justifies that there are methodological concretions that can not be decided and made explicit a priori. The EDR is not something qualitative and quantitative and can not be defined by the methods it uses, but by the objective it pursues: development of grounded innovation (Bereiter, 2002).
We are aware of the difficulty involved in evaluating a competition of this complexity and as a strategy we find very interesting the proposal of Gairín (2010) as it evidences an evaluation at various levels with which not only evaluate the functions Professionals, but the assessment can also be made of social demands and from workplace reality.
For this assessment to make sense, it should have professional repercussions from the perspective of access to the professional career. This is a situation that educational administration does not contemplate, at this time. For this reason, from this project, and based on the results, a series of recommendations oriented to the educational administration will be made in order to offer them a proven and based on the research results.
- Lázaro Cantabrana, J. L., Usart Rodríguez, M., & Gisbert Cervera, M. (2019). Assessing Teacher Digital Competence: the Construction of an Instrument for Measuring the Knowledge of Pre-Service Teachers. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, 8(1), 73-78. doi:10.7821/naer.2019.1.370